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    Selected cyclosporin bibliography


    1. Li P, He QP, Siesjö BK. Effects of intracarotid arterial injection of cyclosporin A and spontaneous hypothermia on brain damage incurred after a long period of global ischemia. Brain Research 2001;890(2):306-313.


    1. Zieminska E, Dolinska M, Lazarewicz JW, Albrecht J. Induction of permeability transition and swelling of rat brain mitochondria by glutamine. Neurotoxicology 2000;21(3):295-300.

    2. Albensi BC, Sullivan PG, Thompson MB, Scheff SW, Mattson MP. Cyclosporin ameliorates traumatic brain-injury-induced alterations of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Exp Neurol 2000;162(2):385-9.

    3. Bart J, Groen HJ, Hendrikse NH, van der Graaf WT, Vaalburg W, de Vries EG. The blood-brain barrier and oncology: new insights into function and modulation. Cancer Treat Rev 2000;26(6):449-462.

    4. Gold BG. Neuroimmunophilin ligands: evaluation of their therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurological disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000;9(10):2331-42.

    5. Gong CX, Wegiel J, Lidsky T, Zuck L, Avila J, Wisniewski HM, et al. Regulation of phosphorylation of neuronal microtubule-associated proteins MAP1b and MAP2 by protein phosphatase-2A and -2B in rat brain. Brain Res 2000;853(2):299-309.

    6. Keep M, Elmér E, Fong K, Csiszar K. Intrathecal cyclosporin prolongs survival of late stage ALS mice. Brain Research 2000:(in press).

    7. Kingham PJ, Pocock JM. Microglial apoptosis induced by chromogranin A is mediated by mitochondrial depolarisation and the permeability transition but not by cytochrome c release. J Neurochem 2000;74(4):1452-62.

    8. Kosenko E, Kaminsky Y, Stavroskaya IG, Felipo V. Alteration of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis by ammonia-induced activation of NMDA receptors in rat brain in vivo. Brain Res 2000;880(1-2):139-46.

    9. Kristal BS, Staats PN, Shestopalov AI. Biochemical characterization of the mitochondrial permeability transition in isolated forebrain mitochondria. Dev Neurosci 2000;22(5-6):376-83.

    10. Kristian T, Gertsch J, Bates TE, Siesjo BK. Characteristics of the calcium-triggered mitochondrial permeability transition in nonsynaptic brain mitochondria: effect of cyclosporin A and ubiquinone O. J Neurochem 2000;74(5):1999-2009.

    11. Leventhal L, Sortwell CE, Hanbury R, Collier TJ, Kordower JH, Palfi S. Cyclosporin A protects striatal neurons in vitro and in vivo from 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity. J. Comp. Neurol. 2000;425(4):471-8.

    12. Li PA, Kristian T, He QP, Siesjo BK. Cyclosporin A enhances survival, ameliorates brain damage, and prevents secondary mitochondrial dysfunction after a 30-minute period of transient cerebral ischemia. Exp Neurol 2000;165(1):153-63.

    13. Mather M, Rottenberg H. Aging enhances the activation of the permeability transition pore in mitochondria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000;273(2):603-8.

    14. Murchison D, Griffith WH. Mitochondria buffer non-toxic calcium loads and release calcium through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and sodium/calcium exchanger in rat basal forebrain neurons. Brain Res 2000;854(1-2):139-51.

    15. Paschen W. Role of calcium in neuronal cell injury: which subcellular compartment is involved? Brain Res Bull 2000;53(4):409-13.

    16. Perez Velazquez JL, Frantseva MV, Huzar DV, Carlen PL. Mitochondrial porin required for ischemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal damage. Neuroscience 2000;97(2):363-9.

    17. Petersen A, Castilho RF, Hansson O, Wieloch T, Brundin P. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition and activation of caspases in calcium ionophore A23187-induced death of cultured striatal neurons. Brain Res. 2000;857(1-2):20-9.

    18. Sims NR, Anderson MF, Hobbs LM, Powell JA, Zaidan E. Brain mitochondrial responses to postischemic reperfusion: A role for calcium and hydrogen peroxide? Dev Neurosci 2000;22(5-6):366-75.

    19. Sullivan PG, Rabchevsky AG, Hicks RR, Gibson TR, Fletcher-Turner A, Scheff SW. Dose-response curve and optimal dosing regimen of cyclosporin A after traumatic brain injury in rats. Neuroscience 2000;101(2):289-95.

    20. Sullivan PG, Thompson M, Scheff SW. Continuous infusion of cyclosporin A postinjury significantly ameliorates cortical damage following traumatic brain injury. Exp. Neurol. 2000;161(2):631-637.


    1. Berman SB, Hastings TG. Dopamine oxidation alters mitochondrial respiration and induces permeability transition in brain mitochondria: implications for Parkinson's disease. J. Neurochem. 1999;73(3):1127-37.

    2. Borlongan CV, Stahl CE, Fujisaki T, Sanberg PR, Watanabe S. Cyclosporine A-induced hyperactivity in rats: is it mediated by immunosuppression, neurotrophism, or both?
    Cell Transplant 1999;8(1):153-9.

    3. Buki A, Okonkwo DO, Povlishock JT. Postinjury cyclosporin A administration limits axonal damage and disconnection in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 1999;16(6):511-21.

    4. Cassarino DS, Parks JK, Parker WD, Jr., Bennett JP, Jr. The parkinsonian neurotoxin MPP+ opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and releases cytochrome c in isolated mitochondria via an oxidative mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999;1453(1):49-62.

    5. Chalmers-Redman RM, Fraser AD, Carlile GW, Pong A, Tatton WG. Glucose protection from MPP+-induced apoptosis depends on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;257(2):440-

    6. Doyle V, Virji S, Crompton M. Evidence that cyclophilin-A protects cells against oxidative stress. Biochem J 1999;341(Pt 1):127-132.

    7. Dubinsky JM, Brustovetsky N, Pinelis V, Kristal BS, Herman C, Li X. The mitochondrial permeability transition: the brain's point of view. Biochem Soc Symp 1999;66(1-2):75-84.

    8. Ferrand-Drake M, Friberg H, Wieloch T. Mitochondrial permeability transition induced DNA-fragmentation in the rat hippocampus following hypoglycemia. Neuroscience 1999;90(4):1325-38.

    9. Friberg H, Connern C, Halestrap AP, Wieloch T. Differences in the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition among brain regions in the rat correlate with selective vulnerability. J Neurochem 1999;72(6):2488-97.

    10. Khaspekov L, Friberg H, Halestrap A, Viktorov I, Wieloch T. Cyclosporin A and its nonimmunosuppressive analogue N-Me-Val-4-cyclosporin A mitigate glucose/oxygen deprivation-induced damage to rat cultured hippocampal neurons. Eur J Neurosci 1999;11(9):3194-8.

    11. Kruman, II, Mattson MP. Pivotal role of mitochondrial calcium uptake in neural cell apoptosis and necrosis. J Neurochem 1999;72(2):529-40.

    12. Kuroda S, Janelidze S, Siesjö BK. The immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506
    equally ameliorate brain damage due to 30-min middle cerebral artery occlusion in hyperglycemic rats. Brain Res 1999;835(2):148-153.

    13. Larochette N, Decaudin D, Jacotot E, et al. Arsenite induces apoptosis via a direct effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Exp Cell Res 1999;249(2):413-21.

    14. Lemasters JJ. V. Necrapoptosis and the mitochondrial permeability transition: shared pathways to necrosis and apoptosis. Am J Physiol 1999;276(1 Pt 1):G1-6.

    15. Matsumoto S, Friberg H, Ferrand-Drake M, Wieloch T. Blockade of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore diminishes infarct size in the rat after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1999;19(7):736-41.

    16. Morioka M, Hamada J, Ushio Y, Miyamoto E. Potential role of calcineurin for brain ischemia and traumatic injury. Prog Neurobiol 1999;58(1):1-30.

    17. Nakatsuka H, Ohta S, Tanaka J, Toku K, Kumon Y, Maeda N, et al. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons after transient forebrain ischemia. Brain Res 1999;849(1-2):216-9.

    18. Okonkwo DO, Buki A, Siman R, Povlishock JT. Cyclosporin A limits calcium-induced axonal damage following traumatic brain injury. Neuroreport 1999;10(2):353-8.

    19. Okonkwo DO, Povlishock JT. An intrathecal bolus of cyclosporin A before injury preserves mitochondrial integrity and attenuates axonal disruption in traumatic brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1999;19(4):443-51.

    20. Scheff SW, Sullivan PG. Cyclosporin A significantly ameliorates cortical damage following experimental traumatic brain injury in rodents. J. Neurotrauma 1999;16(9):783-92.

    21. Siesjo BK, Elmer E, Janelidze S, Keep M, Kristian T, Ouyang YB, et al. Role and mechanisms of secondary mitochondrial failure. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1999;73(6):7-13.

    22. Sullivan PG, Thompson MB, Scheff SW. Cyclosporin A attenuates acute mitochondrial dysfunction following traumatic brain injury. Exp. Neurol. 1999;160(1):226-34.

    23. Yoshimoto T, Siesjo BK. Posttreatment with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A in transient focal ischemia. Brain Res 1999;839(2):283-91.

    24. Zaidan E, Nilsson M, Sims NR. Cyclosporin A-sensitive changes in mitochondrial glutathione are an early response to intrastiatal NMDA or forebrain ischemia in rats. J Neurochem 1999;73(5):2214-7.



    1. al-Nasser IA. In vivo prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced Ca2+ dependent damage of rat heart and liver mitochondria by cyclosporin A. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 1998;121(3):209-14.

    2. Balakirev MY, Zimmer G. Gradual changes in permeability of inner mitochondrial membrane precede the mitochondrial permeability transition. Arch Biochem Biophys 1998;356(1):46-54.

    3. Borlongan CV, Fujisaki T, Watanabe S. Chronic cyclosporine-A injection in rats with damaged blood-brain barrier does not impair retention of passive avoidance. Neurosci Res 1998;32(3):195-200.

    4. Bradham CA, Qian T, Streetz K, Trautwein C, Brenner DA, Lemasters JJ. The mitochondrial permeability transition is required for tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis and cytochrome c release. Mol Cell Biol 1998;18(11):6353-64.

    5. Cassarino DS, Swerdlow RH, Parks JK, Parker WD, Jr., Bennett JP, Jr. Cyclosporin A increases resting mitochondrial membrane potential in SY5Y cells and reverses the depressed mitochondrial membrane potential of Alzheimer's disease cybrids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998;248(1):168-73.

    6. Dubinsky JM, Levi Y. Calcium-induced activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci Res 1998;53(6):728-41.

    7. Friberg H, Ferrand-Drake M, Bengtsson F, Halestrap AP, Wieloch T. Cyclosporin A, but not FK 506, protects mitochondria and neurons against hypoglycemic damage and implicates the mitochondrial permeability transition in cell death. J Neurosci 1998;18(14):5151-9.

    8. Holtsberg FW, Steiner MR, Keller JN, Mark RJ, Mattson MP, Steiner SM. Lysophosphatidic acid induces necrosis and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem 1998;70(1):66-76.

    9. Huser J, Rechenmacher CE, Blatter LA. Imaging the permeability pore transition in single mitochondria. Biophys J 1998;74(4):2129-37.

    10. Kristian T, Siesjö BK. Calcium in ischemic cell death. Stroke 1998;29(3):705-18.

    11. Lemasters JJ, Nieminen AL, Qian T, et al. The mitochondrial permeability transition in cell death: a common mechanism in necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998;1366(1-2):177-96.

    12. Seaton TA, Cooper JM, Schapira AH. Cyclosporin inhibition of apoptosis induced by mitochondrial complex I toxins. Brain Res 1998;809(1):12-7.

    13. Snyder SH, Sabatini DM, Lai MM, Steiner JP, Hamilton GS, Suzdak PD. Neural actions of immunophilin ligands. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1998;19(1):21-6.

    14. Tatton WG, Chalmers-Redman RM. Mitochondria in neurodegenerative apoptosis: an opportunity for therapy? Ann Neurol 1998;44(3 Suppl 1):S134-41.

    15. Tauboll E, Gerdts R, Gjerstad L. Cyclosporin A and brain excitability studied in vitro.
    Epilepsia 1998;39(7):687-91.

    16. Uchino H, Elmer E, Uchino K, et al. Amelioration by cyclosporin A of brain damage in transient forebrain ischemia in the rat. Brain Res 1998;812(1-2):216-26.

    17. Walter DH, Haendeler J, Galle J, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S. Cyclosporin A inhibits apoptosis 
    of human endothelial cells by preventing release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Circulation 1998;98(12):1153-7.

    18. Woodfield K, Ruck A, Brdiczka D, Halestrap AP. Direct demonstration of a specific 
    interaction between cyclophilin-D and the adenine nucleotide translocase confirms their role in the mitochondrial permeability transition. Biochem J 1998;336(Pt 2):287-90.

    19. Zazueta C, Reyes-Vivas H, Zafra G, Sanchez CA, Vera G, Chavez E. Mitochondrial permeability transition as induced by cross-linking of the adenine nucleotide translocase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1998;30(4):517-27.



    1. Borlongan CV, Fujisaki T, Watanabe S. Chronic administration of cyclosporine A does not impair memory retention in rats. Neuroreport 1997;8(3):673-6.

    2. Butcher SP, Henshall DC, Teramura Y, Iwasaki K, Sharkey J. Neuroprotective actions of FK506 in experimental stroke: in vivo evidence against an antiexcitotoxic mechanism. J Neurosci 1997;17(18):6939-46.

    3. Folbergrova J, Li PA, Uchino H, Smith ML, Siesjö BK. Changes in the bioenergetic state of rat hippocampus during 2.5 min of ischemia, and prevention of cell damage by cyclosporin A in hyperglycemic subjects. Exp Brain Res 1997;114(1):44-50.

    4. Halestrap AP, Connern CP, Griffiths EJ, Kerr PM. Cyclosporin A binding to mitochondrial cyclophilin inhibits the permeability transition pore and protects hearts from ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Mol Cell Biochem 1997;174(1-2):167-72.

    5. Hortelano S, Dallaporta B, Zamzami N, et al. Nitric oxide induces apoptosis via triggering mitochondrial permeability transition. FEBS Lett 1997;410(2-3):373-

    6. Kristal BS, Dubinsky JM. Mitochondrial permeability transition in the central nervous system: induction by calcium cycling-dependent and -independent pathways. J Neurochem 1997;69(2):524-38.

    7. Kuroda S, Siesjö BK. Reperfusion damage following focal ischemia: pathophysiology and therapeutic windows. Clin Neurosci 1997;4(4):199-212.

    8. Lemasters JJ, Nieminen AL, Qian T, Trost LC, Herman B. The mitochondrial permeability transition in toxic, hypoxic and reperfusion injury. Mol Cell Biochem 1997;174(1-2):159-65.

    9. Li PA, Uchino H, Elmer E, Siesjö BK. Amelioration by cyclosporin A of brain damage following 5 or 10 min of ischemia in rats subjected to preischemic hyperglycemia. Brain Res 1997;753(1):133-40.

    10. Matsuura K, Kabuto H, Makino H, Ogawa N. Initial cyclosporin A but not glucocorticoid treatment promotes recovery of striatal dopamine concentration in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice. Neurosci Lett 1997;230(3):191-4.

    11. Matsuura K, Makino H, Ogawa N. Cyclosporin A attenuates the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and in striatal dopamine content in rats with intrastriatal injection of 6- hydroxydopamine. Exp Neurol 1997;146(2):526-35.

    12. Meyer S, Kohler NG, Joly A. Cyclosporine A is an uncompetitive inhibitor of proteasome activity and prevents NF-kappaB activation. FEBS Lett 1997;413(2):354-8.


    1. Sabatini DM, Lai MM, Snyder SH. Neural roles of immunophilins and their ligands. Mol Neurobiol 1997;15(2):223-39.

    2. Ankarcrona M, Dypbukt JM, Orrenius S, Nicotera P. Calcineurin and mitochondrial function 
    in glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. FEBS Lett 1996;394(3):321-4.

    3. Bernardi P. The permeability transition pore. Control points of a cyclosporin A- sensitive mitochondrial channel involved in cell death. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996;1275(1-2):5-9.

    4. Bernardi P, Petronilli V. The permeability transition pore as a mitochondrial calcium release channel: a critical appraisal. J Bioenerg Biomembr 1996;28(2):131-8.

    5. Borlongan CV, Freeman TB, Hauser RA, Cahill DW, Sanberg PR. Cyclosporine-A increases locomotor activity in rats with 6- hydroxydopamine-induced hemiparkinsonism: relevance to 
    neural transplantation. Surg Neurol 1996;46(4):384-8.

    6. Farghali H, Martinek J, Kamenikova L, Hynie S. Amelioriation of chemically-induced hepatocyte injury by cyclosporine A. Pharmacol Res 1996;34(5-6):211-8.

    7. Matsuura K, Kabuto H, Makino H, Ogawa N. Cyclosporin A attenuates degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in the mouse brain. Brain Res 1996;733(1):101-4.

    8. Nicolli A, Basso E, Petronilli V, Wenger RM, Bernardi P. Interactions of cyclophilin with the mitochondrial inner membrane and regulation of the permeability transition pore, and cyclosporin 
    A- sensitive channel. J Biol Chem 1996;271(4):2185-92.

    9. Nieminen AL, Petrie TG, Lemasters JJ, Selman WR. Cyclosporin A delays mitochondrial depolarization induced by N-methyl-D- aspartate in cortical neurons: evidence of the mitochondrial permeability transition. Neuroscience 1996;75(4):993-7.

    10. Pastorino JG, Simbula G, Yamamoto K, Glascott PA, Jr., Rothman RJ, Farber JL. The cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor depends on induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem 1996;271(47):29792-8.

    11. Rao MR, Kanji VK, Salahudeen MK, Wang C, Sekhar V. Inhibition of rat brain nitric oxide synthase activity by cyclosporin-A. Indian J Exp Biol 1996;34(12):1265-7.

    12. Siesjö BK, Siesjö P. Mechanisms of secondary brain injury. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1996;13(3):247-68.

    13. Waring P, Beaver J. Cyclosporin A rescues thymocytes from apoptosis induced by very low concentrations of thapsigargin: effects on mitochondrial function. Exp Cell Res 1996;227(2):264-76.


    1. Borlongan CV, Freeman TB, Scorcia TA, et al. Cyclosporine-A increases spontaneous and dopamine agonist-induced locomotor behavior in normal rats. Cell Transplant 1995;4(1):65-73.

    2. Broekemeier KM, Pfeiffer DR. Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition by cyclosporin A during long time frame experiments: relationship between pore opening and the activity of mitochondrial phospholipases. Biochemistry 1995;34(50):16440-9.

    3. Nicolli A, costantini P, Basso E, Colonna R, Petronilli V, Bernardi P. Potential role of cyclosporin A-sensitive mitochondrial channels in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplant Proc 1995;27(5):2825-6.

    4. Richter C, Gogvadze V, Laffranchi R, et al. Oxidants in mitochondria: from physiology to diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995;1271(1):67-74.

    5. Saris NE, Eriksson KO. Mitochondrial dysfunction in ischaemia-reperfusion. 
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl 1995;107:171-6.

    6. Uchino H, Elmer E, Uchino K, Lindvall O, Siesjö BK. Cyclosporin A dramatically 
    ameliorates CA1 hippocampal damage following transient forebrain ischaemia in the rat. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;155(4):469-71.

    7. Zamzami N, Marchetti P, Castedo M, et al. Sequential reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species in early programmed cell death. J Exp Med 1995;182(2):367-77.

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